International Journal of Modern Science and Technology


ISSN 2456-0235

International Journal of Modern Science and Technology, Volume 7, Issue 8-12, 2022, Pages 37-46. 

Heavy metal concentrations in river riana waters in Kisii, Kenya

T. M. Momanyi¹, J. B. Okeyo-Owour¹, D. Nyamai¹, F. Olal¹, A. O. Wanjara²*
​¹School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Rongo University, P.O Box 103 - 40404, Rongo, KENYA.

²School of Science, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kaimosi Friends University, P.O Box 385, Kaimosi, KENYA.
*Corresponding author’s e-mail:

The purpose of the present research work was to assess the concentrations of heavy metals Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) in surface water samples from River Riana in Kisii County Kenya during dry and wet seasons. Water samples were collected from three sampling sites of the River Riana. The procedure required addition of 5.0ml concentrated HNO3 to 50ml sample of water in 100ml beaker, heated on a hot plate to boil until the volume reduced to 20ml. A further addition of 5.0ml concentrated HNO3, heated for 10 minutes, cooled and filtered using 0.42µm Whatman filter paper into a 50ml volumetric flask and topped up to the mark using distilled water. A blank solution was similarly prepared. Heavy metal analysis was done using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission spectrometer (Shimadzu ICPE-9000). The results of the heavy metal mean concentration (ppm) for the water samples from the river were: Pb (.0626±.0399), Cr (0.005±0.003), Ni (0.0595±0.0884), Mn (0.2131±0.066), Cu (0.192±0.083) and Zn (0.2078±0.0725). The concentration of lead (Pb) in surface water were higher than the WHO, USEPA and KEBS recommended limits for drinking water while the concentrations of Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) were within the limits for drinking water standards. The independent t-test exposed significant differences (p<0.001) in heavy metal concentrations between the dry and wet seasons for metals Cr and Mn while there were no significant differences (p>0.001) between seasons for the metals Pb, Ni, Cu and Zn. It was concluded that the river was polluted with Pb and the possibility of food chain biomagnification and bioaccumulation with the potential of human toxic effects.

​​Keywords: Heavy metals oncentration; Toxic effects; WHO; USEPA; KEBS; Bioaccumulation; Recommended limits; River Riana.


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