ISSN 2456-0235

International Journal of Modern Science and Technology

INDEXED IN 

​​​​​​​January 2020, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 34-39. 

​​Phytochemical Analysis and In Vitro Evaluation of Trypanocidal Efficacy of Starchytapheta jamaicensis

E. J. Udo¹*, M. M. Manyi², T. F. Ikpa², N. G. Imandeh²
¹Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria.
²Department of Zoology, College of Science, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

​​*Corresponding author’s e-mail: edidiongudo735@yahoo.com

Abstract

A study on phytochemical analysis and in vitro evaluation of trypanocidal efficacy of Starchytapheta jamaicensis was carried out. Chemical tests were carried out on the plant extracts using standard procedures. Methanol and aqueous extracts of S. jamaicensis were tested for in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity. In vitro assays were carried out in 96-well microtitre plates at effective test concentrations of 4, 2 and 0.4 mg/ml using Deminazene diaceturate (Nozomil®) as the positive control. The results of Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Cardiac glycosides, Flavonoids, Saponins, Tamins, Phlobatannins and Terpenes in the leaf extract of S. jamaicensis but Free Antraquinones were not detected. However, qualitative screening of the root of S. jamaicensis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tamins, and terpenes. phlobatannins, cardiac glycosides and free antraquinones were not detected. In vitro studies showed tested extracts eliminated motility in T. congolense and T. brucei within 30minutes of exposure. Nozomil® eliminated trypanosomal motility within 20 min even at the lowest concentration tested (0.4 mg/ ml). Thus, S. jamaicensis contains bioactive components which exhibit a promising trypanocidal efficacy. However, in vivo evaluation of this plant may validate effective application of this plant in the treatment of trypanosomiasis.

Keywords: Starchytapheta jamaicensis; Phytochemical analysis; Trypanocidal efficacy; Trypanosomiasis.

References

  1. Hoet S, Pieters L, Muccioli G, Habib-Jiwan, J, Opperdoes FR, Quentin-Leclercq, J. Antitrypanosomal activity of triterpenoids and sterols from the leaves of Strychnos spinosa        and related compounds. Journal of Natural Products 2007;70:1360-3.
  2. Atouguia J, Costa J. Therapy of human African trypanosomiasis: current situation. Memorial Institute Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Jeneiro 1999;94:221-4.
  3. Bizimana N, Tietjen U, Zessin KH, Diallo D, Djibril D, Melzig M F, Clausen PH. Evaluation of medicinal plants from Mali for their in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2006;103:350-6.
  4. Jagadish NR, Gopalkrishna B. Evaluation of analgesic activity of different extracts of Stachytarpheta indica L. (Vahl). Biomedical 2008;3:229-33.
  5. Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Chiong HS, Lai SK, Israf DA, Azam TM. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae) in experimental animal models. Medical Principles and Practice 2009;18:272-9.
  6. Evans WC. Trease and Evans pharmocognosy, 15th ed. W. B. Saunders Company 2002.
  7. Sofowara A. Screening Plants for Bioactive Agents. In: Medicinal Plants and Traditional    Medicine in Africa. 2nd Ed, Spectrum Books Ltd., Sunshine House, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1993.
  8. Herbert WJ, Lumsden WH R. Trypanosomabrucei: a rapid matching method for estimating the host sparasitaemia. Experimental Parasitology 1976;40:427-31.
  9. Idu ME, Omogbai KI, Aghimien GE, Amaechina F, Timothy O,  Omonigho SE. Preliminary phytochemistry, antimicrobial properties and acute toxicity of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. Leaves. Trends in Medical Research 2007;2:193-8.
  10. Joshi V, Sutar P, Karigar A, Patil S, Gopalakrishna B, Sureban R. Screening of ethanolic extract of Stachytarpheta indica L. (vahl) leaves for hepatoprotective activity. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy 2010;1:1:174-9.
  11. Ramakrishnan K, Sivaranjani R. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studieson stem of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L) Vahl. International Research Journal of Pharmacy 2013;4:44-7.
  12. Nok AJ, Esievo KA., Hondjet I, Arowosafe S, Onyenekwe PC, Gimba CE, Kagbu JA. Trypanocidal potential of Azadirachta indica: In vivo activity of leaf extract against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 1993;15:113-8.
  13. Sepulveda-Boza S, Cassels BK. Plant metabolites active against Trypanosoma cruzi. Planta Medica 1996;62:98-105.
  14. Hoet S, Opperdoes F, Brun R, Adjakidje V, Quentin-Leclercq J. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of ethnopharmacologically selected Beninese plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2004;91:37-42.