ISSN 2456-0235

International Journal of Modern Science and Technology


​​​​​​​June 2019, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp 148-151. 

​​Estimation of Vitamin C in Selected Fruits and Vegetables Commonly Consumed in Sabratha, Northwestern Libya

Esam Abdulkader Elhefian¹,²*, Lutfi  Almabrouk Sulayman¹,Asma Salem Emkebish¹, Nada Mustafa Alfalah¹
¹Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Sabratha University, Sabratha, Libya.
²Research, Consulting and training Center, Sabratha University, Sabratha, Libya.

​​*Corresponding author’s e-mail:


In the present work, vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of some fruits; guava, kiwi, orange and lemon, and vegetables; green pepper, red pepper, greenhouse-growing pepper, tomato and parsley was determined by means of a titration method. It was found that ascorbic acid content of fruits was highest in guava (217.32 mg/100g) and lowest in lemon (58.12 mg/100g); and in vegetables, it was highest in green pepper (123.94 mg/100g) and lowest in green pepper grown in greenhouse (24.12 mg/100g). These observations may serve as guidance on selection of fruits and vegetables that can be consumed to meet the daily requirements of vitamin C.

Keywords: Estimation, Vitamin C, Fruits, Vegetables.


  1. Jaffe GM. Vitamin C. In: Machalinal ed. Handbook of vitamins. New York: Mercell Dekker Inc; 1984. p.199-244.
  2. Sies H, Wilhelm S. Vitamins E, C, Beta – Carotene and other carotenoides as antioxidants. Am J Clin Nut 1995;62: S315-21.
  3. Levine M. New concepts in the biology and biochemistry of ascorbic acid. New England J Med 1986;314:892-902.
  4. Levine M, Dhariwal KR, Wang Y, Park JB. Determination of optimal vitamin C requirements in humans. Am J Clin Nut 1995;62:S1347S-56.
  5. Pathy K. Process for preparation of vitamin C and method for determination of vitamin C in tablets. SF J Chem Res 2018; 2(1):1-17.
  6. Rath M. Eradicating Heart Disease. Health Now. San Francisco, C.A; 1993. 
  7. Weber P, Bendich A, Schalch W. Vitamin C and human health – a review of recent data relevant to human requirements. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1996;66:19-30.
  8. Fenech M, Amaya I, Valpuesta V, Botella MA. Vitamin C content in fruits: Biosynthesis and regulation. Front Plant Sci 2019;9:2006.
  9. Tee ES, Young SI, Ho SK, Siti Mizura S. Determination of vitamin C in fresh fruits and vegetables using the dye-titration and microfluorometric methods. Pertanika 1988;11(1):39-44.               
  10. Mohammed QY, Hamad WM, Mohammed EK. Spectrophotometric determination of total vitamin C in some fruits and vegetables at Koya area - Kurdistan region/ Iraq. J Kirkuk University Sci Stud 2009;4(20):46-54.
  11. Fukushi K, Takeda S, Wakida S, Yamane M, Higashi K, Hiiro K. Determination of ascorbic acid in vegetables by capillary zone electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A 1997;772:313-20.
  12. Ozgur MU, Sungur S. Third order derivative spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables. Talanta 1995;42:1631-40.            
  13. AL-Hachamii M, Baqir SJ, Aowda SA, Hussein FA, Alasedi MK. Determination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) concentration in some of commercial products, by redox titration. J Babylon University/Pure Appl Sci 2010;18(3):917-24.                                                                            
  14. National Research Council. Recommended dietary allowances. 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1989.                                              
  15. Dioha IJ, Olugbemi O, Onuegbu TU, Shahru Z. Determination of ascorbic acid content of some tropical fruits by iodometric titration. Int J Biol Chem Sci 2011;5(5):2180-84.
  16. Aruoma OI. Free radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidants in human health and disease. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1998;75:199-212.
  17. Arya SP, Mahajan M. Nitroso-R salt as a sensitive spectrophotometric reagent for the determination of vitamin C. Anal Lett 1997;30:2541-53.
  18. Patrick AO, Fabian UA, Peace IC, Fred OO. Determination of variation of vitamin C content of some fruits and vegetables consumed in Ugbokolo after prolonged storage. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 2016;10(7):17-19.                                    
  19. Ellong EN, Billard C, Adenet S, Rochefort, K. Polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin C content in tropical fruits and vegetables and impact of processing methods. Food Nutr Sci 2015;6:299-13.                                         
  20. Muhammad I, Ashiru S, Ibrahim D. I, Kanoma AI, Sani I, Garba S. Effect of ripening stage on vitamin C content in selected fruits. Int J Agric Forestry and Fisheries 2014;2(3):60-5.      
  21. Cioroi M. Study on L-ascorbic acid contents from exotic fruits. Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova, Anul XXXX. 2007;1(129):23-7.
  22. Abdulrazak S, Oniwapele YA, Otie D and Sulyman YI. Comparative   determination   of   ascorbic   acid   in   some   selected   fruits   and   vegetables commonly consumed in northern Nigeria. J Global Biosci 2015;4(1):1867-70.                    
  23. Deekshika B, Praveena Lakshmi B, Singuluri H, Sukumaran MK. Estimation of ascorbic acid content in fruits and vegetables from Hyderabad, India – A theoretical assessment of vitamin C activity. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2015;4(1):96-9.                             
  24. Kumar GV, Kumar AK., Raghu Patel GR, Manjappa S. Determination of vitamin C in some fruits and vegetables in Davanagere city, (Karanataka) - India. Int J of Pharm Life Sci 2013;4(3):2489-91.                                                                                      
  25. Abdelmageed OH, Khashaba PY, Askal HF, Saleh GA, Refaat IH. Selective spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid in drugs and foods. Talanta 1995;42:573-79.