ISSN 2456-0235

​​​​​​​June 2019, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp 138-147. 

​​Comparative Study of Biodiesels Produced from Waste of Beef Tallow, Avocado Pear, Watermelon and Desert Date as Alternative Source of Energy

Agbaye Gabriel¹*, Ogo Ogo², Inalegwu Bawa¹
¹Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.
²Department of Biochemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

​​*Corresponding author’s e-mail: agbaye.gabriel@gmail.com

Abstract

Biodiesel is fossil fuel substitute in which it quantity continually decreases due to increasing demand. This work entails the production of biodiesel from waste of beef tallow fat, Avocado pulp, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) oil and desert date (Balanite aegyptiaca) kernel. Oils from plant materials were extracted with N-hexane using Soxhlet extractor. Biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from these four feedstocks via transestrification with NaOH as catalytst. Results show percentage biodiesel yield of 87.40%, 81.92%, 57.24% and 92.03% for beef tallow, avocado seed pulp, watermelon seeds and balanite kernel oils respectively and this indicate that they are viable feedstock for biodiesel production. Results of the physico-chemical evaluation of their individual biodiesels showed viscosities (4.92, 5.02, 3.70, 5.42 mm2/s), densities( 0.87, 0.93, 0.86, 1.33 g/cm3), acid value ( 0.28, 0.84, 3.09, 0.56 mg KOH/g), free fatty acid (0.14, 0.42, 1.54, 0.24 mg/g), iodine value ( 45.04, 38.7, 0.89, 0 gI2/100g), flash point (154, 172, 102, 172 0C) and cloud point (-8, -5, -2, -13 0C) for beef tallow, avocado seed pulp, watermelon seeds and balanite kernel biodiesels respectively. Not all fuel samples are consistent with ASTM D6751 standard limit. Thus, B20 blends were made and evaluated for major fuel parameters. Comparison of the four B20 blends results show that all four biodiesel blends were within regulatory standard limits. The B20 blends of balanite and watermelon have advantage of improved diesel characteristics thus can be used in place of fossil based diesel.

Keywords: Biodiesel; Feedstocks; Transesterification; Soxhlet; Beef tallow.

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International Journal of Modern Science and Technology

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