​​​​​​​May 2019, Vol. 4, No. 5, pp 119-122. 

​​Generation of Oscillators using Transistors

M. Arunraj, J. J. Selvin, M. Sairam
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Adithya Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India.

​​*Corresponding author’s e-mail: m.arunraj011@gmail.com

Abstract

In the present article a short introduction about astable multivibrator and its use to generate the clock signals are addressed. In this oscillating method consist of two NPN transistors .when a signal is given to base, transistor goes to conduction. Here the oscillating circuit is the capacitors that are coupled with their parallel transistors. The intensity and frequency of the output can be modified by carrying the resistance and capacitance respectively. The main advantage is we have two outputs in this kind of oscillator which makes it fit for various special applications such as blinker as well as a kind of invertor circuits. The output can either be taken from either led bulb, transformer, or into other circuits that needs an oscillating frequencies such as in communication technologies.

Keywords: Flip-flops; Function Generators; Bipolar Junction Transistors; Driver Circuit.

References

  1. Kratyuk V, Vytyaz I, Moon UK, Mayaram K. Analysis of supply and ground noise sensitivity in ring and LC oscillators. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Kobe, Japan. 2005. pp. 5986-89.
  2. Yousef K. A low phase noise, high figure of merit, 3.1 GHz–3.5 GHz ring oscillator using edge injection technique. Japan-Africa Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (JAC-ECC). Alexandria, Egypt. 2017. pp. 37-40.
  3. Romano L, Bonfanti A, Levantino S, Samori C, Lacaita AL. 5-GHz oscillator Array With Reduced Flicker Up-Conversion in 0.13-muhboxm CMOS. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. 2006;41(11):2457-67.
  4. Kawahata KI, Miyayoshi N, Aikawa M. A novel microwave oscillator using double-sided MIC. IEEE MTT-S. International Microwave Symposium Digest (Cat. No.02CH37278). 2002. pp. 609-702.
  5. Stork M. Sinusoidal and square wave voltage controlled oscillator. IEEE ELEKTRO. Rajecke Teplice, Slovakia. 2014. pp. 625-29.
  6. Saha S, Krishnan S, Sweet AA. A C-band wide locking range injection locked oscillator based phase shifter. IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Antennas, Communications and Electronic Systems (COMCAS). Tel-Aviv, Israel. 2017. pp.1-5.
  7. Xu L, Huijsing JH.  Makinwa KAA. A 12μW NPN-based temperature sensor with a 18.4pJ K2FOM in 0.18μm BCD CMOS. IEEE International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI). Vieste, Italy. 2017. pp. 180-2.
  8. Joseph A, Mc Partlin M, Lafontaine H, Forsyth J, Candra P, Previti-Kelly R, Doherty M. SiGe HBT NPN device optimization for RF power amplifier applications. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting. Capri, Italy. 2009. pp. 174-7.
  9. Rieh JS;  Yun J; Yoon D; Kim J, Son H. Terahertz InP HBT Oscillators. IEEE International Symposium on Radio-Frequency Integration Technology (RFIT). Melbourne, VIC, Australia. 2018. pp. 1-3.
  10. Zhou X, Wang L, Zhao P, Mishchenko A.  Fast Adjustable NPN Classification using Generalized Symmetries. International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL). 2018. pp. 1-16. doi: 10.1109/FPL.2018.00008.

International Journal of Modern Science and Technology

INDEXED IN 

ISSN 2456-0235