ISSN 2456-0235

International Journal of Modern Science and Technology


​​​​​​​March 2019, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp 61-66. 

​​Quick Reference to the Matrix Forming Gums and Mucilage

U. Raghu¹, A. A. Hindustan², K. Haritha¹, J. Anji¹, G. Sudhakar¹, G. Vijayalakshmi¹
¹Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University-OTPRI, Ananthapuramu-515001, AP, India.
²Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER), Ananthapuramu-515001, AP, India.

​​*Corresponding author’s e-mail:


The main aim of the present work is to explore the past work done on gums and mucilage as release retarding matrix forming material. Use of gums and mucilage as matrix forming material in drug delivery systems has been weighed down by the synthetic materials. Natural based excipients offered advantages such as non-toxic, less cost and abundant. The aqueous solubility of natural excipients plays an important role in their selection for designing sustained release formulations. This article provides an overview of natural gum and mucilage used as an excipient in dosage forms as well as in novel drug delivery systems as matrix forming materials. This article came with 65 different plant gums and mucilage successfully tried as release modifiers. From this article the researchers can save their valuable time by simply going in glance with the list of gums and mucilage successfully tried for making sustained release dosage forms.

Keywords: Gums; Mucilage; Plant; Sustained; Tablets.


  1. Kokate DCK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy, Nirali, 29th edition. 2008;29:51-57.
  2. Liberman H, Lachman L. The theory and practice of industrial pharmacy. 3rd Ed. Verghese Publication House, Bombay, India. 1991.
  3. Bhardwaj TR, Kanwar M, Lal R. Natural gums and modified natural gums as sustained-release carriers. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 2000;26(10):1025-38.
  4. Agarwal G, Kaushik A. Pharmaceutical Technology-II. 1st Ed. CBS Publishers, New Delhi. 2012.
  5. Pundir S, Badola A, Sharma D. Sustained release matrix technology and recent advance in matrix drug delivery system: a review. Int J Drug Res Technol 2013;3 (1):12-20.
  6. Kumar A, Raj V, Riyaz Md. Review on sustained release matrix formulations. Int J Pharm Integrated Life Sci 2013;3:1-14.
  7. Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission. The Indian pharmacopoeia, 6th Ed. Ghaziabad, India. 2010.
  8. Pal SK, Shukla Y. Herbal medicine.  Asian Pacific J Cancer Prevention 2003;4;281-88.
  9. Singh P, Mahmood T, Shameem A, Bagga P, Ahmad N. A review on Herbal Excipients and their pharmaceutical applications. Sch Acad J Pharm 2016;5(3): 53-7.
  10. Khare B, Dubey N, Sharma A. Antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of Acacia catechu wild on rodent models by controlled release formulation. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2018;10(5);25-31.
  11. Oluwatoyin A. Odeku. Assessment of Albizia zygia gum as a binding agent in tablet formulations. Acta Pharm 2005;55;263-76.
  12. Sarojini S, Manavalan R Effect of natural almond gum as a binder in the formulation of diclofenac sodium tablets. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2010;1(3):55-60.
  13. Muazu J, Alpha A, Mahammed GT. Isolation and release retardant properties of a plant gum obtained from ayoyo. Carib J Sci Technol 2014;2:301-13.
  14. Ramesh KV, Shah F, Kiranmayi BH, Kumar KV. Design of sustained release matrix tablet of levofloxacin employing almond gum. Int J Chem Sci 2014;12(3):762-72.
  15. Jindal M, Kumar V, Rana V, Tiwary AK. Physico-chemical, mechanical and electrical performance of bael gum-chitosan IPN films. Food Hydrocolloids 2013;30(1):192-9.
  16. Vijay JK, Sati OP, Ranjit S. A potential natural tablet binder from Grewia optiva. 2011;3(3):120-27.
  17. Baratam SR, Ratnam BV. Formulation and Optimization of Sustained Release Tablets of Rosuvastatin. Using HPMC K4M, HPMC K100M and Carrageenan gum. Int J Chem Technol Res 2018;11(5):376-86.
  18. Maciel JS, Paula HCB, Miranda MAR, Sasaki JM, de Paula RCM. Reacetylated cashew gum: preliminary study for potential utilization as drug release matrix. J Appl Polym Sci 2006;99(1):326-34.
  19. Michael AO, Adepeju OB, John OA. Evaluation of Cederela gum as a binder and bioadhesive component in ibuprofen tablet formulations. Braz J Pharm Sci 2013;49 (1):95-105.
  20. Patel MT, Jitendra KP, Umesh MU. Assessment of various pharmaceutical excipients properties of natural Moringaoleiferagum. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2012;3(7):1833-47.
  21. Shahbazi A, Lotfi M, Mostafavi KH,  Asadian G, Heidarian AR. Effect of Persian galbanum (Ferula gummosa L.) extract on seed germination and growth of some weeds. Afr J Agric Res 2011;6(22):5106-11.
  22. Kale VV, Kasliwal R, Parida SK. Formulation and release characteristics of guar gum matrix tablet containing metformin HCl. Int J Pharm Expt 2004;45:75-80.
  23. Valluru R, Shivakumar HG. Investigation of kondagogu gum and ghatti gum as binders in formulating metaprolol tartrate tablets. Res J Pharm Bio Chem Sci 2013;4(2):1110-21.
  24. Vijay JK, Sati OP, Ranjit S. A potential natural tablet binder from Grewia optiva. Der Pharmacia Lettre 2011;3(3):120-27.
  25. Gupta R, Gupta GD. A review on plant Cordia obluqua wild. Pharmacogn Rev 2015;9(18):127-31.
  26. Narkhede SB, Atul R. Bendale, Anil GJ. Isolation and Evaluation of Starch of Artocarpus heterophyllus as a Tablet Binder Pharm Technol 2011;3:836-40.
  27. Reddy MM, Reddy JD, Moin A, Shivakumar HG. Formulation of Sustained-Release Matrix Tablets Using Cross linked Karaya gum. Topical J Pharma Res 2012;11(1):28-35
  28. Odeku O, Fell JT. Evaluation of Khaya gum as a directly compressible matrix system for controlled release. 2004;56(11):1365-70.
  29. Valluru R, Shivakumar HG. Investigation of kondagogu gum and ghatti gum as binders in formulating metaprolol tartrate tablets. Res J Pharm Bio Chem Sci 2013;4(2):1110-21.
  30. Jeevanandham S, Sekar M, Dhachinamoorthi D, Muthukumaran M, Sriram N, Joysaruby J. Sustain-Release of Various Drugs from Leucaena leucocephala Polysaccharide. J Young Pharma 2010;2(1):15-20.
  31. Ho YC, Norli I, Abbas F, Alkarkhi M, Morad M. Extraction, characterization and application of malva nut gum in water treatment. Journal of Water and Health 2015;13(2):489-99.
  32. Anoop KS, Vipul KS, Panner RS, Sivakumar T. Evaluation of Mangifera indica gum as tablet binder. International Journal of PharmTech Research 2010;2(3):2098-2100.
  33. Nayak BS, Nayak UK, Patro KB, Rout PK, Preparation and in Vitro evaluation of lamivudine entrapped MOI microspheres for oral administration. Res J Pharm Technol 2008;1(4):437-41.
  34. Ogunjimi AT, Alebiowu G.Neem Gum as a Binder in a Formulated Paracetamol Tablet with Reference to Acacia Gum BP. AAPS Pharm Sci Technol 2014;15(2):500-10.
  35. Dinda SC, Mukherjee B, Samata A. Odina gum: A novel matrix forming material for sustained drug delivery. Orient Pharm Exp Med 2011;11:131-6.
  36. Ahad HA, Chitta SK, Ravindra BV, Sasidhar CGS, Harika B. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of gliclazide abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage prolonged release matrix tablets. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2011;4(1):118-20.
  37. Kebebe D, Belete1 A, Mariam TG. Evaluation of two olibanum resins as rate controlling matrix forming excipients in oral sustained release tablets. Ethiop Pharm J 2010;28:95-109.
  38. Rahim H, Azam MK, Amin B, Kamran AC. Evaluation of Prunus domestica gum as a novel tablet binder. Braz J Pharma Sci 2014;50(1):195-202.
  39. Phani KGK, Gangarao B, Kotha NSLR. Isolation and evaluation of tamarind seed polysaccharide being used as a polymer in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Res J Pharm Bio Chem Sci 2011;2(2):274-90.
  40. Smale MC, Kimberley MO. Growth of naturally regenerated Beilschmiedia tawa. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science. 1986;7:131-41.
  41. Owen SC. Gum Tragacanth. In: Raymond CR, Paul JS, Paul JW. ed.  Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. The Pharmaceutical Press and the American Pharmaceutical Association, Washington, DC, USA. 2008.
  42. Abhijeet P, Swati J, Jui J, Bhanudas K, Aniruddha C. In situ-gelling gellan formulation as vehicle for oral sustained delivery of famotidine. Inventi Rapid/Impact: NDDS 2012;3:1-4.
  43. Dhopeshwarkar V, Zatz JL. Evaluation of xanthan gum in the preparation of sustained release matrix tablets. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1993;19:999-1017.
  44. Hindustan AA, Sreeramulu J, Hima BV, Padmanabha RY. Formulation and Evaluation of Aloe barbadensis Miller Mucilage Based Controlled Release Matrix Tablets of Glimepiride, Asian Journal of Chemistry 2009;21(8):6271-6.
  45. Ramling P, Sachinkumar P, Suchita K. Evaluation of Lepidium sativum Mucilage as Suspending Agent in Paracetamol Suspension. Indo American Journal of Pharm Research 2011;1(3):181-6.
  46. Bansal J, Malviya R, Malaviya, Bhardwaj V, Sharma PK. Evaluation of Banana Peel Pectin as Excipient in Solid Oral Dosage Form. Global Journal of Pharmacology 2014;8(2):275-8.
  47. Saeed M, Semnani KM, Semnani J, Bazargani MH, Amin G. Evaluation of Ocimum basilicum L. seed mucilage as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol HCl. Pharm Biomed Res 2015;1(1):18-25.
  48. Patel MM, Chauhan GM, Patel LD. Mucilage of Lepidium sativum, Linn (Asario) and ocimumcanum, sims. (Bavchi) as emulgents. Indian J Hosp Pharm 1987;24:200-2.
  49. Gangurd AB, Boraste SS. Preliminary evaluation of Bauhinia racemesa Lam caesalpinaceae seed mucilage as tablet binder. Int J Pharm 2012;2(1):80-3.
  50. Rao KM, Gnanaprakash K, Badarinath AV. Preparation and evaluation of flurbiprofen gel mucilage of Cocculus hirsutus leaf powder as gel base. Int J Pharm Technol Res 2010;2(2):1578-83.
  51. Gebresamuel N, Mariam TG. Comparative Physico-Chemical Characterization of the Mucilages of Two Cactus Pears (Opuntia spp.) Obtained from Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. Journal of Biomaterials and Nano biotechnology 2012;3:79-86.
  52. Dalapath G, Kumar CS. Exploring Ziziphus Sps fruit mucilage as a pharmaceutical excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems. Journal of Innovation in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2018;2(2):17-21.
  53. El-Far AH, Shaheen HM, Mohamed M, Mousa. Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera): Protection and Remedy Food. Journal of Nutraceuticals and Food Science 2016;1:2-9.
  54. Kuppusamy G, Kulkarni GT, Muthukumar A, Suresh B. Evaluation of fenugreek mucilage as gelling agent. Int J Pharma Excip 2002;2:16-9.
  55. Choudhary PD, Pawar HA. Recently Investigated natural gums and mucilages as pharmaceutical excipients. Journal of Pharmaceutics 2014;2014: Article ID 204849.
  56. Ahad HA, Rajesh V, Raghavendra GMV, Lasya DN, Harish N, Khamartaz M. Fabrication and in vitro Evaluation of Glimepiride Hibiscus esculentus Fruit Mucilage Sustained Release Matrix Tablets. Int J Pharm Technol Res 2010;2(1):78-83.
  57. Singh K, Kumar A, Langyan N, Ahuja M. Evaluation of Mimosa pudica seed mucilage as sustained-release excipient. AAPS Pharm Sci Technol 2009;10(4):1121-7.
  58. Deokar G, Kshirsagar S, Deore P, Deore H. Pharmaceutical benefits of Plantago ovate (Isabgol seed). Pharm Boi Eval 2016;427-33.
  59. Olayemi O, Oremeyi J. Preliminary evaluation of Brachystegia eurycoma seed mucilage as tablet binder. Int J Pharm Res Inn 2011;3(1):1-6.
  60. Narahari N. Palei, Santhosh K. Mamidi, Rajangam J. Formulation and evaluation of lamivudine sustained release tablet using okra mucilage. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2016;6(9):69-75.
  61. Reddy MR, Manjunath K. Evaluation of pectin derived from orange peel as a pharmaceutical excipient. Int J Drug Dev Res 2013;5(2):283-94.
  62. Girpunje K, Kumaran A, Pal R, Maski N, Thirumoorthy N. A novel binding agent for pharmaceutical formulation from cassia roxburghii seeds. Int. J. P. Pharm. Sci. 2009; 1: 1-5.
  63. Alok S, Jain SK, Verma A, Kumar M, Mahor A, Sabharwal M. Plant profile phytochemistry and pharmacology of Asparagus (shatavari). Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2013;3(3):242-51.
  64. Singh, Pharmaceutical characterization of Cassia tora seed mucilage in tablet formulations. Der Pharmacia Lettre 2010;2(5):54-61.
  65. Karthikeyan A,  Rameshkumar R, Sivakumar, Amri S, Pandian SK, Ramesh S. Antibiofilm Activity of Dendrophthoe falcata against Different Bacterial Pathogens. Planata Medica 2012;78:1918-26.