ISSN 2456-0235

International Journal of Modern Science and Technology


​​​​​​​February 2019, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp 37-47. 

​​Investigation of the Effect of Chemical and Physical Parameters on Preparation, Production Efficiency and Aspect Ratio of Gold Nanorods in Seed-Mediated Growth Method

M. Mohammadzadeh¹, M. Ashjari²*
¹Nanochemical Engineering Department, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
²Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
​​*Corresponding author’s e-mail:


In the present paper, gold nanorods were synthesized with a modified seed-mediated growth method. This method, in terms of adjusting and controlling the aspect ratio to reach optimum optical properties and special applications reasonable, is a flexible method. Thus, in this research work, a comprehensive study has been carried out on the effect of chemical and physical parameters of the preparation method, procedures for preparation and environmental conditions on the preparation and properties of the synthesized gold nanorods. Characterization on the structural properties of synthesized gold nanorods using the UV-vis, FTIR and XRD spectrometries were performed. Investigate and measure of the UV-Visible absorption spectra, provides an explanation present for the formation and a mechanism for controlling the growth of gold nanorods. Results showed that the gold nanorods were formed only at a sufficient concentration of CTAB stabilizer, besides silver nitrate as a controller of the aspect ratio of gold nanorods were used, but the presence of high concentrations of them reduces the nanorods production efficiency. Moreover, changes in the gold salt concentration indicate that gold nanorods with high aspect ratios were formed in growth solution. Usage of the high volumes of the seed solution causes more growth in the nanorods and the effect of increasing the ageing time of seed solution was associated with increasing the production efficiency at the same conditions. Finally, the study of the environmental parameters showed that optimum temperature and pH for the synthesis of the gold nanorods are 25-30 °C and 2-3, respectively.

Keywords: Gold nanorods; Seed-mediated growth method; Surface plasmon fluctuations; Aspect ratio; Production efficiency; Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide.


  1. ​Mohammadzadeh M, Ashjari M. Synthesis, detection, and modification of the surface of gold nanorods and their optical sensitivity for low concentrations of iron (III) ions. Adv Nat Sci: Nanosci Nanotechnol 2019;10:015002-11.
  2. Sendroiu IE., Warner ME., Corn RM. Fabrication of silica-coated gold nanorods functionalized with DNA for enhanced SPR imaging biosensing applications. Langmuir 2009;25(19):11282-4.
  3. Huang P, Pandoli O, Wang X. Chiral guanosine 5′-monophosphate-capped gold nanoflowers: Controllable synthesis, characterization, surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity, cellular imaging and photothermal therapy. Nano Res 2012; 5(9):630-9.
  4. Kang K, Jang H, Kim YK. The influence of polydopamine coating on gold nanorods for laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis. Analyst 2017;142(13):2372-7.
  5. Chang CW, Wang CH, Peng CA. Gold Nanorods Modified with Chitosan as Photothermal Agents. CBME 2008, Proceedings 2009;23:874-7.
  6. Kang H, Trondoli AC, Zhu G, Chen Y, Chang YJ, Liu H, Huang YF, Zhang X, Tan W. Near-infrared light-responsive core-shell nanogels for targeted drug delivery. ACS Nano 2011;5(6):5094–5099.
  7. Cheng PC, Chang HK, Chen SH. Quantitative nano-proteomics for protein complexes (QNanoPX) related to estrogen transcriptional action. Mol Cell Proteomics 2010;9(2):209-24.
  8. Chen YS, Frey W, Kim S. Enhanced thermal stability of silica-coated gold nanorods for photoacoustic imaging and image-guided therapy. Optic Express 2010;18:8867-78.
  9. Huang X, Neretina S, El-Sayed MA. Gold nanorods: from synthesis and properties to biological and biomedical applications. Adv Mater 2009;21(48):4880-910.
  10. P´erez-Juste J, Pastoriza-Santos I, Liz-Marzan LM, Mulvaney P. Gold nanorods: Synthesis, characterization and applications. Coord Chem Rev 2005; 249(17-18):94-104.
  11. Chen H, Shao L, Li Q, Wang J. Gold nanorods and their plasmonic properties. Chem Soc Rev. 2013;42(7):2679-24.
  12. Sau TK, Rogach AL, Jackel F, Klar TA, Feldmann J. Properties and applications of colloidal nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles. Adv Mater. 2010;22(16): 1805-25.
  13. Nikoobakht B, El-Sayed MA. Preparation and Growth Mechanism of Gold Nanorods (NRs) Using Seed-Mediated Growth Method. Chem Mater 2003;15(10):1957-62.
  14. Sau TK, Murphy CJ. Room Temperature, High-Yield Synthesis of Multiple Shapes of Gold Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solution. J Am Chem Soc 2004;126(28): 8648-9.
  15. Sau TK, Murphy CJ. Seeded High Yield Synthesis of Short Au Nanorods in Aqueous Solution. Langmuir 2004;20(15): 6414-20
  16. Sau TK, Murphy CJ. Role of ions in the colloidal synthesis of gold nanowires. Philos Mag 2007;87(14-15):2143-58.
  17. Jana NR, Gearheart LA, Murphy CJ. Seed‐Mediated Growth Approach for Shape‐Controlled Synthesis of Spheroidal and Rod‐like Gold Nanoparticles Using a Surfactant Template. Adv Mater 2001; 13(18) 1389-93.
  18. Jana NR, Gearheart L, Murphy CJ. Wet Chemical Synthesis of High Aspect Ratio Cylindrical Gold Nanorods. J Phys Chem 2001;105(19):4065-67.
  19. Jana NR, Gearheart L, Obare SO, Murphy CJ. Anisotropic Chemical Reactivity of Gold Spheroids and Nanorods. Langmuir 2002;18(3):922-7.
  20. Hou Z, Abbott NL, Stroeve P. Self-Assembled Monolayers on Electroless Gold Impart pH-Responsive Transport of Ions in Porous Membranes. Langmuir 2000;16(5):5271-5.
  21. Sun Y, Wiley B, Li ZY, Xia Y. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Nanorattles and Multiple-Walled Nanoshells/Nanotubes Made of Metal Alloys. J Am Chem Soc 2004;126(30):9399-06.
  22. Draine BT, Flatau PJ. Discrete-Dipole Approximation for Scattering Calculations. J Opt Soc Am 1994;11(4):1491-99.
  23. Link S, El-Sayed MA. Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods. J Phys Chem 1999;103(40):8410-26.
  24. Jain PK, Lee KS, El-Sayed MA. Calculated Absorption and Scattering Properties of Gold Nanoparticles of Different Size, Shape, and Composition: Applications in Biological Imaging and Biomedicine. J Phy Chem 2006;110(14): 7238-48.
  25. Gentili D, Ori G, Franchini MC. Double phase transfer of gold nanorods for surface functionalization and entrapment into PEG-based nanocarriers. Chem Commun 2009;21(39):5874-6.
  26. Zhang F, Shi YF, Sun XH, Zhao DY, Stucky GD. Formation of hollow upconversion rare-earth fluoride nanospheres: Nanoscale Kirkendall effect during ion exchange. Chem Mater 2009; 21(21):5237-43.
  27. Jia Y, Sun TY, Wang JH, Huang H, Li PH, Yu XF, Chu PK. Synthesis of hollow rare-earth compound nanoparticles by a universal sacrificial template method. Cryst Eng Comm 2014;16(27):6141-8.
  28. Gole A, Murphy CJ. Polyelectrolyte-Coated Gold Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization and Immobilization. Chem Mater 2005;17(6):1325-30.
  29. Jiang XC, Brioude A, Pileni MP. Gold nanorods: limitations on their synthesis and optical properties. Colloid Surf A-Physicochem Eng Asp 2006;277(1-3): 201-6.
  30. Ghosh SK, Kundu S, Mandal M, Pal T. Silver and Gold Nanocluster Catalyzed Reduction of Methylene Blue by Arsine in a Micellar Medium. Langmuir 2002; 18(23):8756-60.
  31. Mingzhao L, Guyot-Sionnest P. Mechanism of Silver(I)-Assisted Growth of Gold Nanorods and Bipyramids. J Phys Chem 2005;109(47):22192-200
  32. Cheng J, Ge L, Xiong B, He Y. Investigation of pH Effect on Gold Nanorod Synthesis. J Chin Chem Soc 2011;58(6):822-7.
  33. Saha K, Agasti SS, Kim C, Li X, Rotello VM. Gold Nanoparticles in Chemical and Biological Sensing. Chem Rev 2012; 112(5):2739-79.
  34. Huang X, El-Sayed MA. Gold nanoparticles: Optical properties and implementations in cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Int J Adv Res 2010; 1(1):13-28.
  35. Becker R, Liedberg B, Kall PO. CTAB promoted synthesis of Au nanorods--temperature effects and stability considerations. J Colloid Interface Sci 2010;343(1):25-30.
  36. Keul HA, Moller M, Bockstaller MB. Structural evolution of gold nanorods during controlled secondary growth. Langmuir. 2007;23(20):10307-15.
  37. Sreeprasad TS, Samal AK, Pradeep T. Body- or Tip-Controlled Reactivity of Gold Nanorods and Their Conversion to Particles through Other Anisotropic Structures. Langmuir 2007;23(18):9463-71.
  38. Eastman JA, Choi US, Li S, Yu W, Thompson LJ. Anomalously increased effective thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids containing copper nanoparticles. Appl Phys Lett 2001;78(6): 718-25.
  39. Paul G, Pal T, Manna I. Thermo-physical property measurement of nano-gold dispersed water based nanofluids prepared by chemical precipitation technique. J Colloid Interface Sci 2010;349(1):434-7.