November 2018, Vol. 3, No. 11, pp. 230-237.
Phytochemical Analysis of Mitracarpus villosus and Comparative Toxicity of Mitracarpus villosus Ointment and Honey
J. A. Jato*, I. Bawa, F. N. Onyezili
Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture Makurdi, P.M.B 2373, (970001) Makurdi, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author’s e-mail: email@example.com
Studies on compounds present in plant or animal matter helps in identifying compounds responsible for harmful and beneficial effect in plants and animal by-products. This study was designed to identify and quantify phytochemical compounds in Mitracarpus villosus methanolic leaf extract, and determine the toxicity of M villosus ointment and honey. The results show that M. villosus leaves contains phenolics, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and tannins but no alkaloids. Quantitative phytochemical analysis showed varied percentage content of these compounds with saponins being highest (14.0%) and tannins lowest (1.41%). Acute oral toxicity was determined to be 15066 mg/kg and 7542 mg/kg as LD50 for honey and M. villosus ointment respectively, inferring that both honey and M. villosus ointment belong to the nontoxic class group of substances. Primary irritation indices were recorded as 0.16 and 0.33 for honey and ointment respectively. Therefore, honey and M. villosus ointment belong to the category of negligible irritants. These findings is indicative of the promising potentials of M. villosus ointment as a topical remedy for diseases and further confirms reasons for high demand of honey for various uses despite its alarming cost increase.
Keywords: Mitracarpus villosus; Ointment; Honey; toxicity; Phytochemical.
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