February 2020, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 65-71.
In-Vivo Evaluation of Trypanocidal Efficacy of Phyllanthus amarus Root Extracts in Mice Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma congolense
E. J. Udo¹, M. M. Manyi², T. F. Ikpa², N. G. Imandeh²
¹Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, P.M.B. 2109, Kaduna, Nigeria.
²Department of Zoology, College of Science, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Trypanosoma congolense is debilitating to livestock and invariably fatal if left untreated. Chemotherapy, the main means of controlling this disease has been reported to be toxic and unreliable due to reports of parasite resistance. Thus, the study was aimed at evaluating root extract of Phyllanthus amarus for trypanocidal activity in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Root of Phyllanthus amarus was extracted using methanol and aqueous solvents. Forty five mice weighing between 25-35g were divided into 9 groups (group 1- 9) of 5 mice each. Mice were inoculated with 0.2 ml of blood containing 2.0 x 106 parasites intramuscularly/mouse and were treated with various concentrations of 100, 250 and 500mg/bw of methanolic and aqueous root extracts of Phyllanthus amarus. Diminazine (Nozomil®) at standard concentration of 3.5mg/bw was used as control. Data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P<0.05 level of significance. The result of the study showed that treatment with methanolic and aqueous root extract of Phyllanthus amarus exhibited anti-trypanosmal properties which was concentration dependent thus resulted in significant reduction (P>0.05) in parasitaemia and extension of survival days of the treated mice for additional 22 days against the infected untreated group. There was also a corresponding higher PCV with a fluctuating mean weight values in groups of mice infected but treated with the root extract of Phyllanthus amarus, this was however, statistically significant (P>0.05) when compared with the infected untreated group. Root extracts of P. amarus have shown a successful trypanocidal activity based on suppressed parasitaemia in the treated mice, it can however be used in optimal concentrations to sustain animals infected with animal trypanosomiasis in the absence of synthetic chemical drugs to prevent death of animals infected with Trypanosoma congolense.
Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus; Weight; PCV values; Parasitaemia; Trypanosomiasis; Trypanosoma congolense.