ISSN 2456-0235

International Journal of Modern Science and Technology


​​​​​​​December 2020, Vol. 5, No. 12, pp. 278-283. 

​​Mercury Content of Soil, Water and Proximate Composition of Spinacia oleracea Irrigated with River Tudun Wada, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Shaapera Ugbidye¹*, Yakubu Yahaya¹, Godwin Magit Mafuyai²
¹Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B.2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
²Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Science University of Jos, Nigeria.

​​*Corresponding author’s   


The study was conducted to determine the mercury content of soil, water and proximate composition of Spinacea oleracea irrigated with river Tudun Wada, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The average percentage proximate composition was estimated using standard methods and the concentrations of mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS). The results of the proximate composition revealed Ash (3.86 ± 0.13 %), Crude fibre (4.76 ± 0.15 %), Crude fat (0.0997 ± 0.07 %), Protein (3.93 ± 0.18) and Moisture (73.4 ± 2.7 %). The concentrations of mercury in the soil ranged from 2.10 - 2.90 µg/kg, in Spinacea oleracea it ranged from 0.500 – 1.30 µg/kg and below detection limit in water which indicates that Spinacea oleracea could be an excellent bio-indicator. The transfer factor ratio is < 1 which shows that mercury concentration is greater in the soil than plant part, the transfer coefficient at some points indicate high probability of contamination by anthropogenic activities.

Keywords: Mercury; Spinacea oleracea; Tudun Wada; Soil; Water.


  1. Mousavi SR, Balali-Mood M, Riahi-Zanjani B. Concentrations of mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, arsenic and aluminum in irrigation water wells and wastewaters used for agriculture in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. Int J Occupt Environ Med 2013;4:80-6.
  2. Radwan MA, Salama AK. Market Basket Survey for some Heavy Metals in Egyptians and fruits and vegetables. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:1273-8.
  3. Cao H, Chen J, Zhang J, Zhang H, Qiao L, Men Y. Heavy metals in rice and garden vegetables and their potential health risks to inhabitants in the vicinity of an industrial zone in Jiangsu, China.  J Environ Sci 2010;22:1792-9.
  4. Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng YM, Huang Y Z. Health risk of Heavy Metal with in contaminated soil and Food crops with Waste water in Beijing, China. Environ Poll 2008;152:686-92.
  5. Abimbola W, Akindele S, Jokotagba O, Agbolade O. Analysis of heavy metals in vegetables sold in Ijebu – Igbo, Ijebu North Local Government, Ogun State, Nigeria. Intl J Sci Eng Res 2015; 6:130-136.
  6. Garba ST, Mustapha BU, Baba A. Level of some heavy metals in selected fruits and vegetables. Int J Sci Eng Res 2018;7: 483-92.
  7. Van Ginneken L, Meers E, Guisson R. Phytoremediation for Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils Combined with Bioenergy Production. J Environ Eng Land Scape Managt 2007;15:227-36.
  8. Türkdoğan MK, Kilicel F, Kara K, Tuncer I, Uygan I. Heavy metals in soil, vegetables and fruits in the endemic upper gastrointestinal cancer region of Turkey. Environ Toxicol Pharm 2003;13:175-9.
  9. Najam S, Nawaz R, Ehsan N, Khan MM, Nawaz M.H.  Heavy metals contamination of soils and vegetables irrigation with municipal wastewater: A case study of Faisalabad, Pakistan. J Environ Agric Sci 2015;4:6-10.
  10. Hough RL, Breward N, Young SD,  Crout NMJ, Tye AM, Moirand AM, Thornton I. Assessing potential risk of heavy metal exposure from consumption of home-produced vegetables by urban populations. Environ. Health Perspect 2004;112:215-21.
  11. Hseu ZY. Evaluating heavy metal contents in nine composts using four digestion methods. Bioresour Technol 2004;95:53-9.
  12. Srikanth P, Somasekhar SA, Kanthi GK, Raghubabu K. Analysis of heavy metals using atomic absorption spectroscopy from the samples taken around Visakhapatnam. Intl J Environ Eco Family Urban Stud 2013;3(1):127-32.
  13. Shaibur MR, Shamim AH, Hug S, Kawai S. Comparison of digestion capacity of nitric acid and nitric acid-perchloric acid mixture and the effect of lanthanum chloride on potassium measurement. Nat Sci 2010;8(5):157-62.
  14. Lawal NS, Agbo O, Usman A. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil, irrigation water and vegetables grown around Kubanni River, Nigeria. J Phy Sci 2017;28:49-59.
  15. Shirkhanloo H, Mirzasseini HAS, Shirkhanloo N, Mousavi-Najarkola AS, Farahani H. The evaluation and determination of heavy metals pollution in edible vegetables, water and soil in the South of Tehran Province by GIS. Arch Environ Protect 2015;41:64-74.
  16. Barman SC, Sahu RK, Bhargava SK, Chaterjee C. Distribution of heavy metals in wheat, mustard and weed grown in fields irrigated with industrial effluents. Bull Environ Cont Toxicol 2000;64:489-96.
  17. Sajjad K, Robina F, Shagufta S, Mohammad AK, Sadique M. Health risk assessment of heavy metals for population via consumption of vegetables. World Appl Sci J 2009;6(12):1602-6.
  18. Ubwa ST, Tyohemba RL, Oshio A, Amua QM. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild leafy vegetables common in Benue State, Middle Belt-Nigeria. Int J Sci 2015;4:25-29.
  19. Gafar MK, Itodo AU, Atiku FA, Hassan AM, Peni IJ. Proximate and mineral composition of leave of hairy indigo (Indigofera astragalina). Pak J Nutr 2011;10(2):168-75. 
  20. Eze OC, Tukura BW, Atolaiye BO, Opaluwa OD. Assessment of some physicochemical parameters of soil and heavy metals in vegetables cultivated on irrigated sites along the bank of Mpape River in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 2018;12(5):28-38.
  21. Igwe KO, Onyeike EN, Uwakwe AA. Comparative proximate composition of selected edible vegetables harvested from farmland nearby oil impacted sites in Rivers State, Nigeria. Int J Res Stud Biosci 2017;5(2):8-13.