International Journal of Modern Science and Technology
September 2019, Vol. 4, No. 9, pp 232-237.
Occurrence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women attending Antenatal in Doma Clinic, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria
Luka Ayuba¹, Menegbe Zainab Favour², Umoh Obongemem Enefiok¹, Olaleye Oluwaseun Abigail³
¹Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
²Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Gombe State University, Gombe State, Nigeria.
³Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usman Danfodio University Sokoto, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The present study was aimed at isolating, identifying, evaluating and the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women attending antenatal in Doma clinic, Gombe, Nigeria was determined. A total of fifty (50) pregnant women were examined. Samples of high vaginal swabs were collected from each patient and processed using standard mycological methods. The isolates obtained were related to number of pregnancy (gravidae), 25 (65.5%) were multi-gravidae while 13(25.5%) were primi-gravidae. Pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy had the highest incidence of candidiasis (52.5%), followed by third trimester (31.5%) while the least (16%) was obtained in first trimester. The isolates were also related to age, the age range of 21-25 years had the highest occurrence (39.5%), followed by age range of 26-30 years (26.5%) then 31-35 years (18.5) and 16-20 years had the least occurrence (15.5%). The results of this study revealed a high occurrence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women attending Doma clinic, Gombe, Nigeria in the period of study.
Keywords: Antenatal; Candidiasis; Pregnancy; Candida; Gravidae.
- Raviraj K, Archana K. Candidiasis among pregnant women: A prevalence study. Journal of Applied Medical Sciences 2017;5(2):336-8.
- Altayyar IA, Alsanosi AS, Osman NA. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women attending different gynecological clinic at South Libya. European Journal of Experimental Biology 2016;6(3):25-9.
- Paul S, Kannan I. Prevalence of antenatal vulvovaginal candidiasis: our experience. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology 2017;6(2):443-9.
- Al-Aali KY. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women Attending Al-Hada Military Hospital, Western Region, Taif, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Sciences 2015;4(5):1736-43.
- Okonkwo Nnaemeka J, Umeanaeto Pauline U. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in Nnewi Town of Anambra State, Nigeria International Multi-Disciplinary Journal 2010;4(4):539-48.
- Monif GR, Baker DA, Monif GR, Baker DA. Candida albicans. Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology. 5th ed. New York Parthenon Press: 2003; pp. 405-21.
- Trofa D, Gácser A., Nosanchuk JD. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Clinical Effectiveness Group British Association of Sexual Health and HIV. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008;21(4):606-25.
- Okonkwo Nnaemeka J, Umeanaeto Pauline U. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in Nnewi Town of Anambra State, Nigeria. African Research Review 2010:4(4):539-48.
- Nelson M, Wanjiru W, Margaret MW. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis and determination of the occurrence of Candida species in pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Thika District Hospital, Kenya. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology 2013;20:345-52.
- Kamath P, Pais M, Nayak MG, D’souza CP. An awareness program on prevention of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women. Nitte University Journal of Health Science 2014;4(2):86-94.
- Nwadioha SI, Egah DZ, Alao OO, Iheanacho E. Risk factors for vaginal candidiasis among women attending primary health care centers in Jos, Nigeria. Journal of Clinical Medicine and Research. 2010;2(7):111-30.
- Oyewole OA, Okoliegbe IN, Alkhalil S, Isah P. Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women Attending Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, Bosso Clinic. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2013;4:113-20.
- Jombo GT, Opajobi SO, Egah DZ, Banwat EB, Akaa PD. Symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis and genital colonization by Candida species in Nigeria. Journal of public Health and Epidemiology 2010;2(6):147-51.
- Akinbiyi AA, Watson R, Feyi-Waboso P. Prevalence of Candida albicans and bacterial vaginosis in asymptomatic pregnant women in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Arch. Gynecol Obstet 2008;278:463-69.
- Nwankwo EOK, Kandakai-Olukemi YT, Shuaibu SA. Aetiologic agents of abnormal vaginal discharge among females of reproductive age in Kano, Nigeria. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences 2010;43:12-16.
- Das-Neves J, Pinto E, Teixeira B, Dias G, Rocha P, Cunha T. Local treatment of vulvovaginal candidosis: general and practical considerations. Drugs. 2008; 68 (13): 1787–802.
- García HM, García SD, Copolillo EF, Cora EM, Barata AD, Vay CA, de Torres RA, Tiraboschi N, Famiglietti AMR. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women. Identification of yeasts and susceptibility to antifungal agents. Revista Argentinade Microbiología 2006;38 (1):9-12.
- Ferrer J. Vaginal candidosis: epidemiological and etiological factors. International Journal of Gynaecol. Obstet 2000;1:21-7.
- Parveen N, Munir AA, Din I, Majeed R. Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. See comment in PubMed Commons below J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2008;18:154-7.
- Cheesebrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Part 2. Cambridge University Press. 2006; pp: 434.
- Willacy H, Jackson C. Vaginal and vulval candidiasis. 2011.
- Akah PA, Nnamani CE, Nnamani PO. Prevalence and treatment outcome of vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnancy in a rural community in Enugu State, Nigeria. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 2010;1(10):447-52.
- Aslam M, Hafeez R, Ijaz S, Tahir M. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnancy. Journal of Microb Biomedica 2008;24:54-6.
- Akinbiyi AA, Watson R, Feyi-Waboso P. Prevalence of Candida albicans and bacterial vaginosis in asymptomatic pregnant women in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Arch. Gynecol Obstet 2008;27:463-6.
- Nelson M, Wanjiru W, Margaret MW. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis and determination of the occurrence of Candida species in pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Thika District Hospital, Kenya. Open Journal of Med Microbiol 2013;(3):264-72.
- Jombo GT, Opajobi SO, Egah DZ, Banwat EB, Denen Akaa P. Symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis and genital colonization by Candida species in Nigeria. Journal of Public Health Epidemiology 2010;2(6):147-51.
- McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Graham SM, Kiarie J, Baeten JM, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Holmes KK. Prospective study of vaginal bacterial flora and other risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Journal of Infect Dis 2009;15:1883-90.
- Nandan D, Gupta YP, Krishnan V, Sharma A, Misra SK. Reproductive tract infection in women of reproductive age group in Sitapur/Shahjahanpur district of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Public Health 2011;45(1):8-13.
- Aring BJ, Mankodi PJ, Jasani JH. Incidence of vaginal candidiasis in leucorrhoea in women attending in OPD of gynecology and obstetrics department. International Journal of Biomed Adv Res 2012;3(12):867-9.
- Kurtzma CP, Fell JW, Boekhout T, Robert V. Methods of isolation, Phenotypic characterization and maintainance of yeasts. The yeasts, a Taxonomic Study, 5th edn. Elsevier, 2011.
- Ochei JO, Kolhatkar AA. Medical Laboratory Science Theory and Practice. 6th Edn. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2007.