September 2019, Vol. 4, No. 9, pp 222-231.
Assessment of Heavy Metal Status on Soil around Aquaculture Farmlands in Makurdi Metropolis, Nigeria
Olamide Olarewaju Olaposi¹, Isaiah Korede Alabi¹,², Shauntell Oyigene Ocholi¹
¹Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.
²Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Forestry, Jos. Nigeria.
*Corresponding author’s e-mail: email@example.com
The present study has focused on the investigation of metal composition of soil used in earthen pond construction in Makurdi, Nigeria. Soil samples at two depths (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm) were collected at six fish farm locations and at a control site in Makurdi. Sample collection was done in March and August, 2018 to reflect both dry and rainy seasons. Samples were pre-treated, digested by aqua regia (Acid mixture of 10 ml HNO3 and 3 ml HClO4) and the resulting solution analyzed for the presence of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results indicated that all the metals were detected in the locations except for lead, nickel and cadmium which were not detected at Wadata, North Bank Market and Wurukum farm sites. The concentrations of the metals in soils in both seasons ranged from 12.61-21.80 ppm for Iron; 1.06-3.83 ppm for zinc; 0.76-2.98 ppm for copper; 0.79-3.29 ppm for manganese; 1.99-8.99 ppm for lead; 0.71-11.11ppm for Nickel; 0.64-3.18 ppm for Cadmium and 0.61-6.82 ppm for Chromium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% significance level revealed that, there was no significant difference between dry and wet seasons results but some significant differences (P<0.05) were observed for Lead concentration in fish farms and the control while other metals show no significant differences. Finally, the concept of pollution index (PI) of soils was applied to determine the extent of multi-element contamination in pond water. Fish farm site along Naka road recorded the highest (8.64) PI value while the control site has the least (0.22). The results, however, revealed that the soils were predominantly slightly contaminated with these metals and could pose serious health hazard to aquatic organisms and human especially through food chain. Therefore, to minimize heavy metal load of soils used in pond construction and its consequent effect on aquatic organism, adequate test should be done to ascertain the current status of the soil. Provisions of enabling statutory regulations on waste management are also suggested.
Keywords: Heavy metal; Farmlands; Multi-element contamination; Pollution index.
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