ISSN 2456-0235

International Journal of Modern Science and Technology

INDEXED IN 

​​​​​​​March 2019, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp 70-74. 

​​Rice Husks as a Sustainable Source of Nanostructured Silica for High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

A. Manju Sri, V. Chitra Devi, P. Manjula
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College,Perundurai, Erode – 638060. India.

​​*Corresponding author’s e-mail: manjusrikongu@gmail.com

Abstract

As India is a hub of agricultural waste, annually 12 million tons of rice husk is produced. So far rice husk has been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husk for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and it protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function of ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have a unique nanoporous silica layers in their husk. Also, rice husk contains 67% of silica and rice husk ash contains 80-90% of silica. Taking these advantages, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, with high reversible capacity (2,790 mA h/g , seven times greater than graphite anodes) and long cycle life (86% capacity retention over 300 cycles) suggesting that rice husk be a massive resource to use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes. In the present work, we extract silica from rice husk by means of simple chemical processes such as acid and alkali treatments of rice husk rice and husk ash. To extract silica from rice husk, acid wash is done and high-temperature heating is needed to get Si remnant. Then it is grounded with MgO and allowed to react in a furnace. Then acid wash is done to remove oxides. The obtained silica was utilised to fabricate Li anode having Cu as a current collector using an appropriate binder. Thus the performance of Li-ion batteries is being enhanced.

Keywords: Rice husk; Nanoporous silica; Lithium battery; Anode.

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