International Journal of Modern Science and Technology
December 2018, Vol. 3, No. 12, pp. 253-257.
Acute Toxicity and Effects of Methanolic Leaves Extract of Jatropha tanjorensis on Gonadal Hormones of Male Albino Rats
J. Akighir¹,²,*, B. Inalegwu¹, F. N. Onyezili¹
¹Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Makurdi PMB 2373 (970001), Nigeria.
²Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Hospitals Management Board, Makurdi, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Pituitary gonadal hormones are responsible for the control of fertility. Understanding the regulation of these hormones is vital in solving infertility problems. The levels at which humans consume these medicinal plants without regards for their possible adverse effects has not been fully explored. This study was conducted to determine the acute toxicity and effects of methanolic leaves extract of Jatropha tanjorensis on the gonadal hormones of male albino rats. From the study, the LD50 of methanolic leaves extract in male albino rats was determined to be >6500 mg/kg body weight with no mortality recorded at this dose. The 650 mg/kg body weight of methanolic leaves extract was found to have a significantly (p<0.05) greater reducing effect on the gonadal hormones than sustanon and Amlodipine controls. No significant changes in the body weights or testis were observed. Conversely, the testosterone levels decreased significantly (p˂0.05); similarly, a decrease was observed in FSH and LH (p˂0.05) in treated rats. Epididymal sperm count and motility reduced significantly as compared to sustanon control. These findings reveal that the methanolic leaves extract of Jatropha tanjorensis are nontoxic class of substances at 650 mg/kg and is an antifertility agent.
Keywords: Jatropha tanjorensis; Medicinal plants; Acute toxicity; Gonadal hormones.
- Neave N. Hormones and behaviour: a psychological approach. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008.
- Sakpa CL, Uche-Nwachi OE. Histological effects of aqueous leaf extract of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) on the testes and epididymis of adult Wistar rats. J Med Biomed Res. 2014;12(2):120-8.
- Adebiyi OA, Adebiyi OO, Ilesanmi OR, Raji Y. Sedative effect of hydroalcholic leaf extracts of Cnidoscolous acontifolius. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod. 2012;5(1):1-6
- Iwalewa EO, Adewunmi CO, Omisore NO, Adebanji OA, Azike CK, Adigun AO. Pro- and antioxidant effects and cytoprotective potentials of nine edible vegetables in southwest Nigeria. J Med Food. 2005;8:539-44.
- Oyagbemi AA, Odetola AA, Azeez OI. Ameliorative effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on anemia and osmotic fragility induced by protein-energy malnutrition. Afr J Biotechnol. 2008;7 (11):1721-6.
- Olayiwola G, Iwalewa EO, Omobuwajo OR, Adeniyi AA, Verspohi EJ. Anti-diabetic potential of Jatropha tanjorensis leaves extract. Nig J Nat Prod Med. 2004;8:55-58
- Ehimwema SO, Osagie AU. Phytochemical screening and anti-anemic effects of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf in protein malnourished rats. Plants Arch. 2007;7:509-16.
- Agarwal SP, Rajesh K, Khalid MD, Roop KK. Shilajit: a review: Phytother Res. 2007;21(5):401-5.
- Khattab FK. Histological and ultra-structural studies on the testis of rat after treatment with aluminum chloride. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2007;1(1):63-72
- OECD-Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2001) Guidelines for testing of chemicals -423, Documentation on Acute Oral toxicity and Acute class method Available online from: http://www.oecd.org
- Bruce RD. Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Toxicity Testing. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1985;5:151-57.
- Marshall JC. Investigative procedures. Clinic Endocrinol Metab 1975;4:545.
- Chen A, Bookstein JJ, Meldrum DR. Diagnosis of testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma by selective venous catherization. Fertil Sterile. 1991;55:1202-3.
- Knobil E. The neuroendocrine control of the menstrual cycle. Rec Prog Horm Res. 1980;36:52-88.
- Kothari S, Thompson A, Agarwal A, Plessis SS. Free radicals: their beneficial and detrimental effects on sperm function Ind J Exp Biol. 2010;48:425-43.
- Amoleke UJ. Anti-anemic effect of aqueous and methanolic leaf extract of Jatropha janjorensis on phenylhydrazine induced hemolytic anemic rats. M.Sc. Thesis. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 2015.
- McLachlan RI, O'Donnell L, Meachem SJ, Stanton PG, de Kretser DM, Pratis K. Identification of specific sites of hormonal regulation in spermatogenesis in rats, monkeys, and man. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2002;57:149-79.
- Hammami I, Nahdi A, Mauduit C, Benahmed M, Amri MB, Amar A. The inhibitory effects on adult male reproductive functions of crude garlic (Alliumsativum) feeding. Asian J Androl. 2008;10(4):593-601.
- Hammami I, Amara S, Benahmed M, El May MV, Mauduit C. Chronic crude garlic- feeding modified adult male rat testicular markers: Mechanisms of action. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:65.
- Haywood M, Spaliviero J, Jimemez M, King NJ, Handelsman DJ, Allan CM. Sertoli and germ cell development in hypogonadal (hpg) mice expressing transgenic follicle- stimulating hormone alone or in combination with testosterone. Endocrinol. 2003;144(2):50917.