​​​​​​Vol. 2, No. 11, 2017, pp. 354-359. 

Enzymatic Pretreatment for Acrylamide Mitigation in Baked Cookies   

G. Baskar*, S. Subanjalin Joy, R. Aiswarya
Department of Biotechnology, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai – 600 119. India.
​​*Corresponding author’s e-mail: basg2004@gmail.com


Acrylamide is carcinogen chemical that are produced in many starchy food and in some cereal when it undergoes frying and baking. In the present work incubation time with asparaginase before frying of cookies, enzyme concentration, baking temperature and baking time are optimized for acrylamide mitigation in baked cookies fungal asparaginase. Incubation time was varied from 30-80 min and minimum acrylamide formation was observed at 60 min using 1 U of asparaginase. Cookies were baked using air fryer at optimized the conditions. The baking temperature was varied from 130-160°C and 140°C was found to be optimum. Baking time of 30 min was found to give good quality cookies with less acrylamide. The presence of acrylamide in cookies with and without asparaginase treatment was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy and the change in surface characteristics was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope.

Keywords: Baked Cookies; Asparaginase; Acrylamide mitigation; Pretreatment. 


  1. Rice JM. The carcinogenicity of acrylamide. Mutation Research 2005;580: 3-20.
  2. Friedman M. Chemistry, biochemistry, and safety of acrylamide. A review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2003;51: 4504-4526.
  3. Johnson KA, Gorzinski SJ, Bodner KM, Campbell RA, Wolf CH, Friedman MA, Mast RW. Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study on acrylamide incorporated in the drinking water of fischer 344 rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1986;85:154-168.
  4. Zyzak DV, Sanders RA, Stojanovic M, Tallmadge DH, Loye Eberhart B, Ewald DK, Gruber DC, Morsch TR, Strothers MA, Rizzi GP, Villagran, MD. Acrylamide formation in heated foods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2003;51:4782-4787.
  5. Zhang Y, Zhang Y. Formation and reduction of acrylamide in Maillard reaction: A review based on the current state of knowledge. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2007;47:521-542.
  6. Forstova V, Belkova B, Riddellova K, Vaclavik L, Prihoda J, Hajslova J. Acrylamide formation in traditional Czech leavened wheat-rye breads and wheat rolls. Food Control. 2014;38:221-226.
  7. Eriksson, S. Acrylamide in Food Products: Identification, Formation and Analytical Methodology. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; 2005.
  8. Becalski A, Lau BP, Lewis D, Seaman SW. Acrylamide in foods: occurrence, sources, and modeling. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2003;51:802-808.
  9. Kuilman M, Wilms L. Safety of the enzyme asparaginase, a means of reduction of acrylamide in food. Toxicol Lett. 2007;172:S196-S197.
  10. Xu F, Oruna-Concha MJ, Stephen Elmore J. The use of asparaginase to reduce acrylamide levels in cooked food. Food Chem. 2016;210:163-171.
  11. Baskar G, Subanjalin Joy S,  Aiswarya R. Optimization of enzymatic pretreatment and frying conditions for acrylamide mitigation in fried tapioca chips. International Journal of Modern Science and Technology. 2016;1(6):224-229.
  12. Baskar G, Renganathan S. Statistical and evolutionary optimization of operating conditions for enhanced production of fungal L-asparaginase. Chem Pap. 2011;65:798-804
  13. Wriston JCJr, Yellin TO. L-asparaginase. A review.  Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol. 1973;39:185-248.
  14. Narita H, Uchino N, Machida S. Modification of textile fibers by graft copolymerization and determination of acrylamide. Chem Abs. 1964;20:187-190.
  15. Baskar G, Aiswarya R, Subanjalin Joy S. Microscopic and Spectroscopic analysis of asparaginase treated fried tapioca chips. International Journal of Industrial Engineering 2017;1(4):135-140​​. 

International Journal of Modern Science and Technology


ISSN 2456-0235