ISSN 2456-0235

International Journal of Modern Science and Technology


International Journal of Modern Science and Technology, 1(6), 2016, Pages 224-229. 

Optimization of Enzymatic Pretreatment and Frying Conditions for Acrylamide Mitigation in Fried Tapioca Chips

G. Baskar, S. Subanjalin Joy, R. Aiswarya
Department of Biotechnology, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai – 600 119. India.

Asparaginase is the enzyme which will cleave amino group from asparagine and prevent the formation of acrylamide in fried foods. The mitigation of acrylamide formation in fried tapioca chips by using fungal asparaginase was studied in the present work. The small and uniform sized tapioca chips were soaked in asparaginase solution to mitigate the acrylamide formation during frying. The optimum conditions for maximum mitigation of acrylamide in fried tapioca chips were found to be 10min of soaking time, 2 U/g of asparaginase concentration in soaking solution, soaking at 60°C followed by frying at 180°C for 15 min. The fungal asparaginase was found to be effective in mitigation of acrylamide in tapioca fried chips.

​​Keywords: Asparaginase; Fried foods; Tapioca Chips; Acrylamide; Mitigation. 


  1. Brown L, Rhead MM, Bancroft KCC, Allen N. Case studies of acrylamide pollution resulting from industrial use of acrylamides. Water Pollut Control 79 (1980) 507-510. 
  2. Lingnert H, Grivas S, Jagerstad M, Skog K, Tornqvist M, Aman P. Acrylamide in food: mechanisms of formation and influencing factors during heating of foods. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition 46 (2002) 159-172.
  3. Tareke E, Rydberg P, Karlsson P, Eriksson S, Tornqvist, M. Acrylamide a cooking carcinogen?. Chem Res Toxicol 13 (2000) 517-522.
  4. Zhang Y, Zhang G, Zhang Y. Occurrence and analytical method of acrylamide in heat-treated foods Review and recent developments. Journal of Chromatography A 1075 (2005) 1-21.
  5. Eriksson S. Acrylamide in Food Products: Identification, Formation and Analytical Methodology. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 2005.
  6. Torqvist M. Acrylamide in Food: The Discovery and Its Implications. In Chemistry and Safety of Acrylamide in Food; Friedman M, Mottram D. Eds.; Springer Science, Business Media Inc.: New York, NY, USA, 2005.
  7. Baskar G, Renganathan S. Statistical screening of process variables for the production of L-asparaginase from cornflour by Aspergillus terreus MTCC 1782 in submerged fermentation. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 2 (5) 45-48.
  8. Johnson KA, Gorzinski SJ, Bodner KM, Campbell RA, Wolf CH, Friedman MA, Mast RW. Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study on acrylamide incorporated in the drinking water of Fischer 344 rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 85 (1986) 154-168.
  9. Tilson HA. The neurotoxicity of acrylamide: An Overview. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 3 (1981) 445-461.
  10. Lo Pachin RM, Lehning EJ. Acrylamide-induced distal axon degeneration: a proposed mechanism of action. Neurotoxicology 15 (1994) 247-259.
  11. Dearfield KL, Abernathy CO, Ottley MS, Brantner JH, Hayes PF. Acylamide: Its metabolism, development and Reproductive effects, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity. Mutat Res 195 (1988) 45-77.
  12. Costa LG. Biomarker research in neurotoxicolgy: the role of mechanistic studies to bridge the gap between the laboratory and epidemiological investigations 104 (1996) 55-67.
  13. Joanna W, Agnieszka TC, Anna B, Ewa P. Estimation of dietary exposure to acrylamide of Polish teenagers from an urban environment. Food Chem Toxicol 75 (2015) 151-155.
  14. Dearfield KL, Douglas GR, Ehling UH, Moore MM, Sega GA, Brusick DJ. Acrylamide: A Review of its genotoxicity and an assessment of heritable genetic Mutat Res 330 (1995) 71-99.
  15. Barbara PR, Alvaro MV, Julia DM. Risks of dietary acrylamide exposure: A systematic review. Food Chem 157 (2014) 310-322.
  16. Chen MJ, Hsu HT, Lin CL, Ju WY. 2012. A statistical regression model for the estimation of acrylamide concentrations in French fries for excess lifetime cancer risk assessment. Food Chem Toxicol 50 (2014) 3867–3876.
  17. Lipworth L, Sonderman JS, Tarone R E, McLaughlin JK. Acrylamide: a human cancer risk?. Eur J Cancer Prevent 22 (2013) 193-194.
  18. Erickson BE. Finding acrylamide. Anal Chem 76 (2004) 247A-248A.
  19. Becalski A, Lau BPY, Lewis D, Seaman S. Acrylamide in foods: Occurrence and sources. Acrylamide Symposium, 116th AOAC International Meeting, September 22-26, Los Angeles, California, 2002.
  20. Mottram DS, Wedzicha BL, Dodson AT. Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. Nature 419 (2002) 448-449.
  21. Sanders RA, Zyzak DV, Stojanovic M, Tallmadge DH, Eberhart BL, Ewald DK. LC/MS acrylamide method and its use in investigating the role of asparagines. Acrylamide Symposium, 116th Annual AOAC International Meeting, September 22-26, Los Angeles, California, 2002.
  22. Achim C, Reinhold C, Andreas S. Acrylamide in cereal products: A review. . Cereal Sci 47 (2008) 118-133.
  23. Tanya YC, Postles J, Nigel GH. Reducing the potential for processing contaminates formation in cereal products. J Cereal Sci 59 (2014) 382-392.
  24. Alves RC, Soares C, Casal S, Fernandes JO, Beatriz M, Oliveira OO. Acrylamide in espresso coffee: Influence of species, roast degree and brew length. Food Chem 119 (2009) 929-934.
  25. Anese M, Suman M, Niloli. MC. Acrylamide removal from heated foods. Food Chem 119 (2010) 791-794.
  26. Baskar G, Renganathan S. Optimization of culture conditions and bench-scale production of asparaginase by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus terreus MTCC 1782. J Microbiol Biotechnol 22 923-929.
  27. Wriston JC, Yellin TO. L-asparaginase – A Review. Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol. Biol. 39 (1973) 185-248.
  28. Narita H, Uchino N, Machida S. Modification of textile fibers by graft copolymerization and determination of acrylamide. Chem Abs 20 (1964) 187-190.
  29. Pedreschi F, Kaack K, Granby K, Troncosso E. Acrylamide reduction under different pretreatment in French fries. Journal of Food Engineering 79 (2007) 1287-1294.